Monday, August 24, 2020
Obligation Crisis - Essay Example The obligation/value proportion expanded from 15:1 to 30:1 after the US Securities and Exchange Commission permitted shadow banks to get as much as their own hazard the executives divisions thought about reasonable. So while business banks framed just 40% of absolute loaning, shadow banks represented practically 60%. Banks obtained a huge amount of cash, made extraordinary arrangements and became massively rich. They at that point repaid the acquired cash. Speculators saw this and needed a section in it. This gave banks the plan to interface speculators to property holders through home loans. Since land had been doing so well, speculation banks were keen on purchasing the home loan. The loan specialist consented to offer it to them for a charge. The speculation banks at that point obtained vigorously, purchased more home loans and gathered them in a case. The bank at that point cut the container into 3 cuts: Safe, Okay, and Risky. It stuffed the cuts back up and considered it a Colla teralized Debt Obligation (CDO). A CDO works like three layers. As the cash roll in from property holders taking care of their home loans the top plate fills first then the rest goes into the center and the rest of into the last plate. In the event that proprietors can't pay their home loans, less installments are gotten and the last plate stays unfilled. For facing more challenge, the most minimal plate gets a higher pace of return when contrasted with the primary plate which gets the least rate as it is the most secure. Banks guaranteed these cuts for a minor charge called a Credit Default Swap (CDS). FICO score offices appraised the top as a protected AAA venture and the center as BBB. In view of the appraisals, the venture broker could offer the cuts to financial specialists with various hazard inclinations. They made millions through this, and afterward reimbursed the advances. Since financial specialists were making much over 1%, they needed more CDOs, speculation banks needed more home loans and the interest for contracts rose. They at that point drew closer the subprime showcase in such a case that the property holders defaulted on their home loan, the moneylender would get the house which would increment in esteem. They began giving home loans without requiring initial installments, verification of salary and any archives whatsoever. These home loans were Adjustable Rate Mortgages. The home loan installments were alluringly low during the underlying time frame yet they expanded exponentially after the mystery time frame. Therefore, from 2004 to 2006, the subprime contracts represented around 1/fifth of the general home loan advertise. In the end the subprime borrowers began defaulting after the secret time frame. The bank that was currently the proprietor of the house went into dispossession and put the house available to be purchased. Inevitably, more houses went available to be purchased. Presently there were such a large number of houses available to be purchased, expanding gracefully, causing house costs to fall, as opposed to rise. This made an issue for property holders who kept on making their home loan installments. The estimation of their homes started to decay as the quantity of houses available to be purchased in the market expanded. Individuals would not pay their home loans. Default rates expanded exponentially and costs crashed. Therefore the estimation of CDOs which were sponsored by these home loans additionally fell. Speculation banks attempted to sell the CDOs yet there were no purchasers. Through CDOs the issue spread to other budgetary markets. The issue was additionally exacerbated by CDS since merchants of CDS purchased CDS from others to ensure themselves. The Secondary market for subprime CDO exchanging ended on account of absence of purchasers in the market. Private budgetary foundation would not loan any money
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Showing the Future Today School is regularly not charming as one grows up and some of the time it is even feared. Such huge numbers of youngsters will come up with any rationalization on the planet not to go to class. Understudies will start to play hooky and unavoidably, they will drop out of school in the event that they can. I, be that as it may, cherished going to class. I recall while growing up school was continually something I anticipated ordinary. All through my school years, I took an interest in all that I had the option to when it came to class exercises. However, towards the end I was getting amped up for graduation and the entirety of the senior occasions, I was likewise disheartened in light of the fact that I didn't need nowadays to end. Numerous individuals regularly asked why it was that I had such an adoration for school. I even stood amazed on occasion what it was that caused me to feel so constrained to go to class. I was not the most well known individual in school, however I had numero us extraordinary companions. I kept my evaluations up as well as could be expected however I was never the most scholarly understudy in school. There was all the while something that made my school days the best recollections of my life. Educators, my instructors were what made my days stream by cheerfully as they helped me become instructive and ethically. Instructors are now and again the main thing that makes school fun and charming. School is clearly about instruction and learning and intended to show one the nuts and bolts of training, permitting them to develop intellectually. There is anyway such a meager line among instructive and moral development. To instruct one without the other removing is almost outlandish. Growing up I was so karma to have been instructed by the best instructors out there and I can genuinely say that I never had an educator in school that caused me to feel awkward or insufficient. Learning was amusing to me and that is for the most part on account of my childhood and having brilliant instructors. I have been instructed as an understudy in a wide range of states, for example, Florida, Michigan, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and West Virginia and in these states I have consistently been hono red with fine teachers.
Friday, July 24, 2020
Adventures in Chinatown To be honest, my weekend mornings are probably less exciting than yours, especially if you spend them in riveted perusal of my fascinating blog posts. On Friday nights, while the rest of MIT is hard at work pioneering the latest advances in party technology, Im slowly becoming a connoisseur of next weeks problem sets. The next morning, my esteemed colleagues are calculating the limit of sleep as time approaches 3 PM, and Im stuck on a deserted island of pre-afternoon hours with nary a soul to bestir. Well, unless the following calculation appears on the brunchtime horizon. Dim Sum! If youre ever mind-numbingly bored enough to pop open a tourist guidebook to Boston, youll see this listed as one of the tastier Must-Dos. So far, dim has been summed roughly every other weekend, and I can assure you that its much, much tastier than Paul Reveres house. Dim Sum, like problem sets and arguably Communism, works best when done with a large group of people. After a certain degree of collective sleep deprivation, weekend mornings exist only so that dorms, fraternities, independent living groups, and various student organizations can wrangle their members/fake-members-subscribed-to-their-mailing-lists onto a subway trip to Chinatown, where crowded eateries are bunched into corners like figures on scratch paper. Thus, to maximize Dim Sum frequency, one should join as many groups at MIT as humanly possible. By âoneâ, I mean âyouâ. (I confess that I find Chinatown trips to be absolutely magnetizing. Emerging from the florescent subterranean depths of a red line t-stop, Boston warmly greets you with soaring skyscrapers, farmers markets, pseudo-Italian street food, and motor vehicles struggling to obey the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. A few blocks later, youre dodging taxis in Chinatown and on the verge of making a purchase that will someday cause your roommate to leave you.) Last Saturday, I woke up in a not-very-exciting fashion, so Ill eschew the details and save you a paragraph of reading. To compensate, one of the other bloggers can write an extra paragraph this week if they wish. Around 11:30, I absorbed a lot of photons on the way from Random to the MIT campus. Thusly energized, I smoothly merged into the excited mob of students collected on the Student Center steps, the reaction site for ATSs first Dim Sum run of the year. Voila! A few t-stops on the red line and we were on our way to the ambiguously-indicated âSum Foodâ. (Entering Chinatown, there were three directions to choose from, which is only a problem when time is linear. I think. Anyway, the upperclassmen shown above picked the right one, so I didnt need to think long about non-Newtonian physics.) While not as dizzyingly hectic as New Yorks, Bostons Chinatown is a nonetheless a fierce neighborhood to navigate, not to mention one with a pungent cultural identity. By which I mean its the sort of place where I would live were I the type of person who writes novels, or raises live chickens in my yard, or writes novels about other people raising live chickens in my yard. I pulled out my camera to get a shot of the vegetable stands and took a elbow in the back from a vegetable-laden pedestrian plowing through the crowds. Its sort of hilarious that this nearly counted as a work-related injury. (Whats âRusset Potatoesâ upside-down? Some sort of green vegetable!) Considering that there were probably at least four dozen people in our mob, ATS decided to scout out the biggest Dim Sum joint in all of Chinatown. Behold, a Dim Sum restaurant with its own marquee (and an anteroom bigger than my floor lounge, and a staircase wider than some residential streets, and another anteroom upstairs, which I guess would make the first anteroom an ante^2-room). And crowds worthy of a Broadway matinÃ©e. I suppose Cats could have been playing in the other dining room, theoretically, but Andrew Lloyd Weber is inferior to dumplings anyway, especially with chili sauce (the dumplings, not Sir Weber). And dÃ©cor reminiscent of French baroque, complete with etched relief figurines that looked creepily like Leibniz (not pictured, for your mental health and mine). I kid you not, the palatial spread shown below was barely half the restaurant. Am I forgetting something? Oh right, food. Appropriately enough, the lighting was âdimâ, so the pictures arent exactly going to win me a Pulitzer (not this time, at least. Ill try again later.) (Shrimp dumplings in a translucent rice-flour skin, backed up by peripheral sticky rice) (Zongzi, sticky rice mounds stuffed with chicken, sausage, and other savory fillings, all wrapped in fragrant leaves and steamed) (Congee with preserved egg and Ben 10. The former was in the murky white depths of the rice porridge, the latter shared it with me and topped it with enough pepper to heat a small house.) You get the general idea. I have this theory that the Dim Sum system models the perfect process for optimizing consumer satisfaction. Theres no delay, the dishes are steaming hot, the tables are round so as to maximize socializing capacity, servers bring up a steady parade of rolling carts, and the total charge per person invariably comes up to a single-digit number. In this case, my table was populous enough that I ended up bidding farewell to George Washington only thrice. Thanks, guys! Glad you came! After five weeks in college, Ive learned that groceries actually have to be purchased once in a while. With money and stuff. In all seriousness, I lived entirely on free food for my first three weeks* at MIT, which in itself was an experience worthy of a Hemingway-esque novella, except with less fish. Fondly do I reminisce on my youthful days, when a night of ravaging two-pound lobsters from the fraternity across the street would be followed by a full day of monastic cold cereal and stashed granola bars. If you have the guts and the stomach and the lack of sound judgment, I urge you to see how long you can live on a Freegan diet (yep, âFreeganâ is a real word. I wish I had invented it). Youll never look at meals the same way again. (*Some people here have been able to last half a semester without caving in, so Ive heard. This, however, requires Olympic stamina and a willingness to suffer though innumerable company recruitment dinners.) But, having shed the blithely pointless whims of pre-semesterhood, I joined Ben on a much-appreciated dive into the Asian grocery mart next door. Produce galore! At the sight of fully-stocked shelves dedicated to nothing but frozen buns, I lost all fear of nuclear warfare. I might have gone slightly overboard, but at least Ill stay alive, Mom. Ben opted for a more sensible variety of sustenance in the form of assorted snack foods. Bens parents will be glad too. Having fulfilled our nutrition needs for the week, Ben and I headed back into Dim Sum Xanadu, where our cohorts were still feasting away. Adequately stuffed, our friends decided that the logical next step was to buy a lot of pastries. Off to the bakery we went. Warning: Non-kosher image below. This specimen here was classified as âThousand Layer Cakeâ, despite having only 7 identifiable layers. I go to MIT, so I instantly recognized that the labeler had failed by two or three orders of magnitude. Unless the baker had intended to represent a thousand-layer cake with a ridiculously low number of pixels, Im still unconvinced. By then, I was ready to call it a day. However, no day was called because we soon found ourselves in a butchers shop that also happened to sell refreshingly fruity drinks. On the way out, I beheld a wonder of creative marketing. The sign is to be read, âPatronize us! Youll never see another company like this ever again!â At long last, we withdrew from the deliciously incoherent bowels of Chinatown. Somebody wanted to stop by the drugstore, so Ben and I went along and turned the Halloween costume displays into masterpieces of satire. I have no idea whats going on in the next photo, so lets just skip over it. After a long morning that melted into three hours of soft, buttery afternoon leisure, I finally got back to campus, where even pigeons try to semi-rigorously follow mathematical principles. And this is why I do homework on Friday nights.
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Patricia McKenna Professor Riley English 101 16 November 2015 Drug Addicts: Should they Receive Rehabilitation or Go to Prison? People everywhere suffer from the life-ruining disease, drug addiction. A common way people try to escape the hardships of life is to turn to drugs. Once they get into drugs that are highly addictive, such as heroin, they are trapped by a dependency that can be incapacitating. These people are no different than anybody else, they are simply people who made a bad decision and are now stuck. The best thing for these people is to be in a supporting environment to kick the nasty habit they have formed. The place that provides the perfect conditions is rehabilitation centers, not prison. Prison is a very hostileÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Meaning that it is not the addict choosing this life, it is the drug taking over the abuser (Johann). Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse reiterates the fact that addicts are sick by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"We need to first recognize that drug addiction is a mental illness.Ã¢â¬ Also, researchers have shown that most addicts also have psychiatric issues such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, psychosis, ADHD, and other personality disorders (Singer, Kola, and Biegel). So, not only do addicts have a disease that they struggle with day by day but also, often they have other mental issues that need to be treated, some even caused by the addiction. Brig Gen Maktoum al Sharifi, the head of Abu Dhabi Capital Police expressed the same idea by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"A drug addict is a sick person and he should be treated as such. Alternative punishment would be more effective. A drug offender could be just an addict, not a criminalÃ¢â¬ (Jakarta). A person suffering from cancer or bipolar disorder would not be punished and put behind bars so why should someone with a drug addiction? Addictions are frequently caused by deeper reasons that need to be helped and addressed by professionals in order to make a change in addictsÃ¢â ¬â¢ lives. Addicts usually go in a downward spiral and they often lose everything in their life from their family to their job to a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
2013 Exam Review Session CGA MS2 Information SystemsÃ¢â¬â¢ Strategy 1 Agenda Agenda will change as needed to suit your needs Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2 pm Start. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction Feedback Solicitation Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2:10 Ã¢â¬â 2:30: Fundamentals of Business Case Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2:30 Ã¢â¬â 3:45. Business Case Example/s Ã¢â¬ ¢ Break 10 mins Ã¢â¬ ¢ 3:55 Ã¢â¬â 5pm Review of key items from all modules Ã¢â¬ ¢ 5pm Finish. We will write a custom essay sample on Ms2 Course Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2 Nine-step approach to case analysis Spend about 40% of your time on the case Ã¢â¬â 90 minutes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skim the case. Read the case closely. Identify problems, threats, and opportunities. Analyze the data. Generate alternatives. Select the decision criteria. Analyze and evaluate the alternatives. Make a recommendation or decision. Determine Implementation steps associated Risks. 3 Executive Summary (3 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Objective of the report Key problems/threats/opportunities identified State Alternatives (briefly) Recommendations Ã¢â¬â Include completion date Implementation strategy Ã¢â¬â Key Risk and mitigation (briefly) Ã¢â¬ ¢ It should suffice as a Stand alone report REVIEW YOUR CASEÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4 Current Situation (10 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ List some of the strengths/ Strategic advantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is there an existing system? What is wrong? Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â List briefly explain the problems Categorize them if possible Determine Root cause, if there is one single cause? Business fundamental shortcomings? Conflicts? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does the technology used align / support the business model? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational misfits? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strategic misfits? 5 Current Situatio n contdÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the Impact? Ã¢â¬â Cost: quantified in $$ Ã¢â¬â Does it meet current or future business needs? Ã¢â¬â Intangible impacts Ã¢â¬â Strategic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Threats Ã¢â¬ ¢ Opportunities Ã¢â¬â Competitive Ã¢â¬â Technological 6 Criteria (5 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is Criteria? What is it used for? Ã¢â¬ ¢ State it at a high level where you can Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prioritize the criteria Ã¢â¬â and show that you have done so. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain why you chose each criterion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Measuring each criterion? ($, market share/Sales, other goals) Ã¢â¬â Does it meet current or future business needs? Ã¢â¬â $ savings Ã¢â¬â Intangible benefits Ã¢â¬â Strategic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Threats Ã¢â¬ ¢ Opportunities Ã¢â¬â Competitive Ã¢â¬â Technological 7 Alternatives Recommendation (15 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improvise use your imagination (just be logical). Each alternative should be a mostly complete Solution. Each alternative should be feasible. Assess each alternative based upon the criteria Ã¢â¬â show this analysis in your work. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Other pros cons (other than in the criteria) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alternatives donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be mutually exclusive. They can be a combination of the options identified. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why did you choose the recommended alternative/s? Ã¢â¬â Benefits Ã¢â¬â Explain how it achieves the objective/resolves the problem Ã¢â¬â Limitations / risks 8 Alternatives Recommendation (ContinuedÃ¢â¬ ¦) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make a recommendation (use a positive voice! ) Ã¢â¬â Do not just suggest something Ã¢â¬â Do not say it weakly or ambiguously Ã¢â¬ ¢ I believeÃ¢â¬ ¦ / In my opinionÃ¢â¬ ¦ / My thoughts areÃ¢â¬ ¦ Clearly recommend an action and explain Ã¢â¬ ¢ what it is and Ã¢â¬ ¢ why it fits the criteria. (if you have not already in the analysis). 9 Risk Management Plan (15 marks) Read Carefully the requirements of this section. Does it require an Implementation / Action plan as well? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Narrative exp lanation Ã¢â¬â Implementation Strategy/Approach (at a high level)? Ã¢â¬â Assumptions / Requirements Ã¢â¬ ¢ High level Risks, Ethical, Privacy issues? (Probability Impact) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mitigation Strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Plan Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Actual implementation steps and, within each step Ã¢â¬â Step Risk if any and mitigation plan if any Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Time Lines / Time Frame / Schedule Detail Costs Responsibilities Project Phases, if anyÃ¢â¬ ¦ short term, long term 10 Exam Review Session Ã¢â¬ ¢ Go over Business Case Ã¢â¬â TonyÃ¢â¬â¢s Auto Services Inc. from 2010 June exam 11 Some multiple choice tipsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ When answering a true and false question on the Exam simply break down complex sentences into smaller phrases. Each phrase has to be true or the entire sentence is false. Ã¢â¬ ¢ And, for multiple choice questions try to answer the question before looking at the answer choices. Remember that a perfect answer may not be given as a choice. Choose the best answer. Ã¢â¬â Source Certified Fraud Examiners (CFE) Exam Coach. 12 Strategic Alignment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Look for IT Strategy to support Business strategy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to differentiate from competition Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to reduce costs Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to bring business Ã¢â¬Å"Quick to marketÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to create new markets / products Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to tie suppliers and customers 13 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ threat of new entrants bargaining power of customers bargaining power of suppliers threat of substitute products or services rivalry among existing competitors 14 Threat of New Entrants Mitigation Strategies: Ã¢â¬â High entry cost. Equipment, buildings, infrastructure, etc. Ã¢â¬â Mature Information Systems Ã¢â¬â Expertise Knowledge Ã¢â¬â Compete aggressively on Price Ã¢â¬â Lock in partners for a competitive edge Ã¢â¬â Brand recognition. Product Differentiation. Ã¢â¬â Focus on a Market niche Ã¢â¬â Operating Efficie ncies Pace of change Ã¢â¬â IT 16 MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s Law MetcalfeÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dropping price of computer Storage Dropping cost of processing (Ã¢â¬Å"mipsÃ¢â¬ ) Double the power every 18 months MetcalfeÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Ã¢â¬â The value of the network is the square of the sum of the nodes. Therefore stick with popular technology 17 Strategic Planning for IS Ã¢â¬ ¢ How is Planning done? Ã¢â¬â Top Down / Strategic Analysis Ã¢â¬â Bottom Up / Enterprise Analysis Ã¢â¬â Scenario Planning / Ã¢â¬Å"What ifÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ When is Planning done? Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Short Term Long Term Mergers Acquistions Economic downturns As part of a Budgeting Exercise After a major disaster. 18 Planning Issues Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Scalability Capacity planning Standardization vs. differentiation Legacy systems Ã¢â¬â Upgrade to new system or integrate with new technology but old core. 9 Total Cost of Ownership Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hardware Software Installation Training Support Ongoing Maintenance S/W Upgrades Infrastructure costs Data Backups, Business Continuity, Insurance Downtime Space, Energy, Security 20 Six IT Decisions Ã¢â¬â IT should not make 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How much to spend Allocation amongst Business Processes Firm-wide IT capabilities How much IT Security Privacy issues Blame over failure 21 IT Governance 22 10. 3 OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT 23 Achieving Success in IS Projects Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ clearly defined goals excellent communication management involvement definitive timelines Project management skills S. M. A. R. T Objectives. Why do they Fail? Ã¢â¬ ¢ lack of understanding of the desired results (imprecise targets) Ã¢â¬ ¢ poor estimating techniques for budgeting and scheduling Ã¢â¬ ¢ small, unadjusted schedule slippage, which cumulatively results in a major delivery delay Ã¢â¬ ¢ lack of project management skills or leadership Ã¢â¬ ¢ poorly trained analysts and programmers Ã¢â¬ ¢ conflicting goals and objectives among the project team members and users use of inappropriate software or hardware tools 25 Make Vs. Buy Ã¢â¬â Issues Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Cost Specialized functionality Ability to integrate with other existing Systems Ability to change the s/w Maintenance / Service Contract Update / Upgrade Speed of delivery KNOWLEDGE Ã¢â¬â Business vs. Industry vs. Functional Responsibility vs. Control vs. Risk Conversion 27 Parallel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Least risk of not meeting objectives Compare results to ensure correctness Gentle weaning off of the Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢ system Resilient to errors. Cons Ã¢â¬ ¢ Duplication of effort Ã¢â¬ ¢ Requires additional computing resources Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not possible in every situation 28 Pilot Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Allows for a small, low risk, controlled test bed Allows for a Go-NoGo decision w/o large investment Limits disruption harm Helps overcome user resistance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cons Ã¢â¬â Still Costly to run 2 systems Ã¢â¬â even if scaled down Ã¢â¬â Results may not extrapolate to Ã¢â¬Ëfull installÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Choice of Pilot site is critical 29 Phased Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Incremental approach with functional Phase-in Allows for Phased SystemsÃ¢â¬â¢ Development Allows time for orientation of the new technology Usually easier to manage the change Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cons Ã¢â¬â Still running 2 systems, Ã¢â¬â Longer disruption 30 Direct Cutover Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬â Quick Ã¢â¬â Easy on resource utilization (only 1 system running) Ã¢â¬â Low cost Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cons Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Risky Requires full training preparation Requires Ã¢â¬Ëall handsÃ¢â¬â¢ on deck for Implementation Causes spike in Help desk calls Cr eates disruption, uncertainty, confusion Errors can cause Business Loss / interruption 31 Internet as a business tool Advantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wider Market exposure New ways to communicate (text, voice, video) Economical (ISP, programming, Shipping) 24x7x365 Anywhere, Anytime Off loads work to the customer Convenient for the customer if well designed. Quick Easy to update / Change Ã¢â¬â Real time Consistent Information / Prices 32 Internet as a business tool Disadvantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not everybody has access high speed Impersonal not so interactive No touch feel of the goods Replacement for good business practice? Lack of consumer trust Legal challenges Socio-economic factors (availability of access) Privacy Challenges Groupware Collaborative s/w Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ MS NetMeeting / Communicator / Remote PC support Rolling out s/w updates and self healing s/w IBM Lotus Notes Domino EMC Documentum Virtual Meeting, avatars , e-Rooms (SDLC Project Mgmt) Private Cloud computing Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â VPN Storage space Applications Virtualization Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data Warehousing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data Mining Ã¢â¬ ¢ Business Intelligence s/w Strategic use of the Internet Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost Reduction Strategic Alliances Differentiation of products services Customer Loyalty (custom mass production) Value Chains To take advantage of Internet Technologies: Ã¢â¬â Keep focused on Business Strategy (Internet doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t compensate for bad or missing strategy) Ã¢â¬â Simplify Integrate your customer facing processes Ã¢â¬â to enable self service Ã¢â¬â Adhere to evolving IT standards Rationale for E-Business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diminished Information Asymmetry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Richness vs. Reach Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduced transaction costs Ways to Reduce Costs Customer Self serve Ã¢â¬â Eliminate middle person Ã¢â¬â Customer data entry Ã¢â¬â Self research and reduced consultation time Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduced Staffing levels Reduced Re-work Streamlined communication Faster 37 Securing online transactions The key issues in a transaction processing environment are Ã¢â¬ ¢ identification (Who are you? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ authentication (How can I be sure you are who you say you are? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ authorization (What authority do you have to make whatever transaction you seek? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ privacy (How can we be sure our transaction is private? Ã¢â¬ ¢ nonrepudiation (How can we each be assured that the other will not later deny the transaction? ). Benefits / Limitations of Networking Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sharing Ã¢â¬â Printers, Drives, Scanners, etc Ã¢â¬ ¢ e-mail Ã¢ â¬ ¢ Centralized Administration Ã¢â¬â Distribution of S/W, Policies, Patches, A/V Ã¢â¬â Tracking, monitoring, Backing up data Ã¢â¬â Remote repair Support Ã¢â¬ ¢ Groupware Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limitations Ã¢â¬â Cost, Security, Vulnerability 39 Client Ã¢â¬â Server Computing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Centralized Computing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distributed Computing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Advantages Ã¢â¬â Data Security Centralization Ã¢â¬â Administration Ã¢â¬â Off Loads processing to Clients Disadvantages Ã¢â¬â extra complexity Ã¢â¬â Cost 40 Advantages of Outsourcing Ã¢â¬ ¢ cost savings through economies of scale and scope Ã¢â¬ ¢ infusion of cash through liquidation of computer assets Ã¢â¬ ¢ facilitate transition of data centre from cost centre to profit/loss centre Ã¢â¬ ¢ ability to rapidly introduce new technology and access IT talent Ã¢â¬ ¢ Better Scalability Ã¢â¬ ¢ focus on core competencies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Allows an objective look at process improvement by O/S 41 Limitations of Outsourcing loss of direct mana gerial control Ã¢â¬ ¢ difficulty in reversing decision Ã¢â¬ ¢ outsourcerÃ¢â¬â¢s viability (financial strength, responsiveness, service, and so on) Ã¢â¬ ¢ dilutes the strength of in-house staff Ã¢â¬â Unique, one of a kind application support? Ã¢â¬â Will key staff stay permanent or be rotated? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ vendor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know your business lack of flexibility untenable long-term contracts; fixed price versus service trade-off requires skills in partnership management strategic factors Privacy issues Monitoring / Managing Outsourcers 42 Risk Mitigation Strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Risk Assessment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Restrict Physical access Log all visitors Ã¢â¬â in/out Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cameras, Card Readers, Security Guards Alarms monitoring Intrusion Detection Systems (network) Firewalls Restricted Network access Policies, signoff, and Security Awareness training 43 Risk Mitigation Strategies ContÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authentication (know, have, and are) Ã¢â¬â Password Strategies, Single Sign-on, Pass Phrase Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authorization (Open / need to know) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Access invocation / revocation procedures Ã¢â¬â Hiring / Firing / Promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Segregation of Duties Ã¢â¬ ¢ Adequate Supervision Sign offs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitoring, Logging, Reporting, and Acting on Information. 44 Good Luck!! 45 How to cite Ms2 Course Review, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Table of Contents Forms of pollution Effects of pollution Environmental effects Regulation of pollution Refutation against pollution Conclusion Works Cited As population is increasing, pollution is becoming a massive global problem with far reaching consequences. The lifestyles of the modern people have changed as their actions contribute to wider magnitude in polluting the environment. Air, land, water, radioactive and terrestrial pollution has affected millions of people lives around the globe, even causing death and contributing to the effects of global warming.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pollution as a Big Problem That Faces the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is therefore evident that indeed pollution is a threat to the survival of people and if stringent measures are not improvised, it remains a bomb in waiting to explode. Pollution is human made, pausing devastating health issue s among the community at large, and its management cuts across all spectrums of societies including cultural, political, ethnic, and educational backgrounds Forms of pollution Various forms of pollution have contributed in the pollution of the environment. These include air, light, soil, water, soil/land, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, littering among many others. Air pollution is one of the leading forms of communication. This type of pollution results from emission or release of toxic chemical particles into the atmosphere (Bingheng, Haidong, Renjie, Songhui, and Chuanjie 1292). Some forms of air pollution include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxides produced by industries, chlorofluorocarbons, and combustion of motor vehicles fuels. Noise pollution consists of industrial noises, aircraft vehicle hooting and playing of loud music. This kind of pollution has effects o n the hiring capabilities of people as it may affect their hearing coordination. Radioac tive contamination emanates from activities such as atomic physics and the generation of nuclear power such as manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. Water pollution on the other hand results from discharge of ewer water or industrial wastes into water surfaces that are used for domestic use. Such water posses a health risks to those people depending on such water. Land or soil pollution is yet another form of pollution that continues to affect the livelihood of human beings. This form of pollution occurs when chemical leak or spill into the underground soil. These chemical include hydrocarbons, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides, and herbicides.Advertising Looking for research paper on ecology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such components have a health risk to the survival of human beings as they may hinder the growth of products hence denying people the opportunity to plant crops hence leading to st arvation. All these forms of pollution are aided by human beings action in their quest to earn a living. Even though, these pollutions have bad effects on the health of the population and the society, many people do little to reduce these effects. Effects of pollution Pollution has adverse effects on the health of the people. Adverse air pollution possesÃ¢â¬â¢ threats to many lives of living organism. For instance, pollution of the ozone layer may cause problems of respiratory diseases, throat inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, chest pain, and even congestion. Apart from posing health risks to human beings, pollution from air posses a threat to the survival of living organisms such as birds and other animals that, depend on fresh oxygen. Therefore, pollution of air, concerns the whole community and society and for the problem to be averted, their input and involvement is necessary. According to Krautz, water pollution causes an approximately 1,400 deaths in a day (144). Most o f those people who succumb to deaths as a result of water pollution drink contaminated water; untreated sewerage water from companies. Most of deaths are in the developing countries, as most of them have no working policies on industrial water pollution. Poverty has also contributed to pollutions of water, for instance, in India it is estimated that around 700 million people have no access to good/proper toilet leading to many children deaths in a year averaging to 1000. Statistics of deaths resulting from air and water pollution are alarming. In China, many people are dying as a result air pollution. An approximate of 527,700 fatalities is recorded resulting from air pollution due to increased industrialization. Noise pollution causes hearing loss, sleep disturbances, stress, and even contributed to high blood pressure among the people. These are problems that people continue to experience and unknowing they affect their lives and even shorten their life expectancy. Environmental e ffects Pollutions have effects on the environment. All these forms of pollutions take place in the environment and therefore, this leaves it exposed to a number of effects. Pollution of the environment causes emission of green gases that leads to global warming that eventually affects the ecosystems in a multiplicity of ways. Furthermore, smog in the air is able to reduce the amount of sunlight that is received by plants to carry out photosynthesis leading to crop failure resulting to an outbreak of hunger. Pollution can also make soil to become infertile and unsuitable to support plants. This may affect the living organs in soil and even the potential of the soil to support plants. Acid rain that is destructive is also caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that lower the PH of the soil leading to crop failure.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pollution as a Big Problem That Faces the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regulation of pollution The rate at which the environment is being polluted is alarming and as some of the measures to curb the ever-increasing rate, a number of policies and measures have been put in place. For instance, many nations in the world have enacted legislations and formulated policies geared at regulating various types of pollutions and mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. In most countries, the initiative to regulate pollution is under the government while others have given the mandate to other branches or non-governmental institutions to regulate pollution from industries and households. As a result, there has been locking of heads and disagreements on how these programs should be implemented with parties with interests objecting some reforms because of fear of running into losses (Harrison 6). It is therefore, apparent that, for the environment to be free from pollution all members of the society should be brought into the framework an d be responsible for their actions. The government, the education sector , the community members, all the ethnic groups should work in tandem at ensuring that they avoid polluting their environment. Governments have come up with different policies in their quest to eradicate pollution. For instance, most of them have intensified their campaigns and they now look beyond their national borders in pursuant of clean environment (Harrison 4). According to Harrison, many governments are seeking priority pollutants that tend to persist in environments for longer periods and use them instead (4). Many initiatives have also been initiated geared at protecting the aquatic environment from priority pollutants in order to protect marine waters (Harrison 4). Furthermore, several governments have also accepted approaches of prioritizing pollutant control. Some of these include replacement of chemicals and using more environmentally friendly chemical, reduction of use of priority pollutants, caref ul use of these chemicals in order to reduce accidents and or adventitious loss and waste. In UK for example, legislations have been enacted geared at regulating direct discharges to water and indirect discharges to sewer. These regulations are controlled via permitting systems (Harrison 4). The main legislations include the environmental protection act of 1990, the water resources act of 1991 and water industry act of 1991 for discharges to sewer (Harrison 6). These legislations serve to regulate, monitor, and control any illegal or not up to standard ways of discharge. According to Sell, agricultural losses caused by air pollution runs into hundreds of millions of dollars annually (9). For instance, much of the losses and damages that are witnessed in California are caused by pollutions in the air. Damage caused to crops ranges from visible to those that affect the growth and productivity of crops leading to destroying of life (Sell 10). Furthermore, air pollution affects the clim ate both regionally and global wise. For example, regionally, rainfall can be altered through the presence of air pollution (Sell 12). US for example, has over the past put in place legislations that would ensure that water pollution is contained. For instance, the refuse act of 1899 presented dumping of wastes into national navigation rivers. U.S army corps of engineers enforced the laws. The law was revived in 1972 by the then president Nixon. The law required an approximate 40,000 industrial plants discharging wastes into navigable rivers to specify the quantity and the type and to apply for a permit to discharge the wastes. This was one of the government initiate and will to control water pollution (Nelly 26). Environmental conservation can also be management by educating the public and key industries on the importance of ensuring that they keep the environment clean. Schools and learning institutions should be entrenched in the school curriculum in order to educate the students on how to keep the environment clean. Furthermore, before granting a license to investors interested in investing in an industrial plant, the investor should comply with the environmental regulations that requires proper disposal of their wastes.Advertising Looking for research paper on ecology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cutting of trees contributes to pollution of the environment. A good case was in China in 1998 when China witnessed flooding along the Yangtze River. As a measure to curb further flooding, the government banned tree cutting hence leading to prevention of flooding (Hill 4). Main causes of pollution According to Hill, the main cause of pollution is the growing human population, increased or growing rate of consumption and the large scale technological advancements when more industries are set up to engage in the production process (4). These factors, to larger extend have contributed to almost all forms of pollution that the world currently is experiencing. For instance, higher percentage of atmospheric green gas emissions, carbon dioxide emissions, water pollution are caused by human actions. Therefore, the world will continue to experience effects of pollution if urgent measures are not put in place. Refutation against pollution According to Lioy and Georgopoulos, pollution cannot b e eliminated 100% as there are a number of causes (1352). This observation is true and therefore it provides a loophole in the laxities of laws by some government in dealing with such cases. Some governments have blamed the continued pollution on cultural and ethnic and politics. Yes, these factors may prevent effective war against pollution. Politics is one of the factors that has been cited as able to bar proper implementation of legislations to eradicate pollutions. Nevertheless, pollution can be solved by legislations. For example, establishment of more smoking zones, putting smoke filters, can manage air pollution and chimneys in industrial buildings, control on the kind of fuels that are used in cars, power stations and aeroplanes. Water pollution can be avoided by the communities themselves reasoning logically and being wise enough not to pollute the water. Industries that lead in water pollution should be held responsible and monitored through legislations. Soil or land poll ution on the other hand can be managed through, anti liter campaigns aimed at educating people on responsible littering, dumping of organic materials in areas far from residential places and inorganic material such as metal and plastics, glass should be recycled or reserved a specific place of dumping. Conclusion Pollution is a big problem that faces the world. The world population is increasing at a very high rate, technology is growing fast, and the rate of consumption of products is increasing. Every sound-minded person is supposed to be cautious about what they engage in and work hard to contribute in keeping their environment clean. Even with government enacting legislations, the buck still stops with the people. We either destroy our ecosystem or try to make it a good place. Even though we cannot control pollution 100%, efforts geared at reducing the already polluted environment and that to ensure or curb further pollution should be exhibited. Therefore, the communities at lar ge have the responsibility of ensuring that pollution is avoided. Works Cited Bingheng, Chen, Haidong, Kan, Renjie, Chen, Songhui, Jiang, and Chuanjie, Hong. Ã¢â¬Å"Air Pollution and Health Studies in ChinaÃ¢â¬âPolicy Implications.Ã¢â¬ Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, 61.11 (2011): 1292-1299. Print. Harrison, Roy. Pollution: causes, effects and control. UK: Paston PrePress Ltd, 2001. Print. Hill, Marquita. Understanding Environmental pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2010. Print. Krautz, Joachim. Ã¢â¬Å"Poisoning the fount of life Ã¢â¬â fresh water pollution and its consequences.Ã¢â¬ Contemporary Review, 265.1544 (1994):144. Print. Lioy, Paul, and Georgopoulos, Panos. Ã¢â¬Å"New Jersey: A Case Study of the Reduction in Urban and Suburban Air Pollution from the 1950s to 2010.Ã¢â¬ Environmental Health Perspectives, 119.10 (2011): 1351-1355. Print. Sell, Nancy. Industrial Pollution Control: Issues and Techniques. 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