Thursday, May 7, 2020
Patricia McKenna Professor Riley English 101 16 November 2015 Drug Addicts: Should they Receive Rehabilitation or Go to Prison? People everywhere suffer from the life-ruining disease, drug addiction. A common way people try to escape the hardships of life is to turn to drugs. Once they get into drugs that are highly addictive, such as heroin, they are trapped by a dependency that can be incapacitating. These people are no different than anybody else, they are simply people who made a bad decision and are now stuck. The best thing for these people is to be in a supporting environment to kick the nasty habit they have formed. The place that provides the perfect conditions is rehabilitation centers, not prison. Prison is a very hostileÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Meaning that it is not the addict choosing this life, it is the drug taking over the abuser (Johann). Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse reiterates the fact that addicts are sick by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"We need to first recognize that drug addiction is a mental illness.Ã¢â¬ Also, researchers have shown that most addicts also have psychiatric issues such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, psychosis, ADHD, and other personality disorders (Singer, Kola, and Biegel). So, not only do addicts have a disease that they struggle with day by day but also, often they have other mental issues that need to be treated, some even caused by the addiction. Brig Gen Maktoum al Sharifi, the head of Abu Dhabi Capital Police expressed the same idea by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"A drug addict is a sick person and he should be treated as such. Alternative punishment would be more effective. A drug offender could be just an addict, not a criminalÃ¢â¬ (Jakarta). A person suffering from cancer or bipolar disorder would not be punished and put behind bars so why should someone with a drug addiction? Addictions are frequently caused by deeper reasons that need to be helped and addressed by professionals in order to make a change in addictsÃ¢â ¬â¢ lives. Addicts usually go in a downward spiral and they often lose everything in their life from their family to their job to a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
2013 Exam Review Session CGA MS2 Information SystemsÃ¢â¬â¢ Strategy 1 Agenda Agenda will change as needed to suit your needs Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2 pm Start. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction Feedback Solicitation Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2:10 Ã¢â¬â 2:30: Fundamentals of Business Case Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2:30 Ã¢â¬â 3:45. Business Case Example/s Ã¢â¬ ¢ Break 10 mins Ã¢â¬ ¢ 3:55 Ã¢â¬â 5pm Review of key items from all modules Ã¢â¬ ¢ 5pm Finish. We will write a custom essay sample on Ms2 Course Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2 Nine-step approach to case analysis Spend about 40% of your time on the case Ã¢â¬â 90 minutes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skim the case. Read the case closely. Identify problems, threats, and opportunities. Analyze the data. Generate alternatives. Select the decision criteria. Analyze and evaluate the alternatives. Make a recommendation or decision. Determine Implementation steps associated Risks. 3 Executive Summary (3 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Objective of the report Key problems/threats/opportunities identified State Alternatives (briefly) Recommendations Ã¢â¬â Include completion date Implementation strategy Ã¢â¬â Key Risk and mitigation (briefly) Ã¢â¬ ¢ It should suffice as a Stand alone report REVIEW YOUR CASEÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4 Current Situation (10 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ List some of the strengths/ Strategic advantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is there an existing system? What is wrong? Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â List briefly explain the problems Categorize them if possible Determine Root cause, if there is one single cause? Business fundamental shortcomings? Conflicts? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does the technology used align / support the business model? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational misfits? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strategic misfits? 5 Current Situatio n contdÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the Impact? Ã¢â¬â Cost: quantified in $$ Ã¢â¬â Does it meet current or future business needs? Ã¢â¬â Intangible impacts Ã¢â¬â Strategic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Threats Ã¢â¬ ¢ Opportunities Ã¢â¬â Competitive Ã¢â¬â Technological 6 Criteria (5 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is Criteria? What is it used for? Ã¢â¬ ¢ State it at a high level where you can Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prioritize the criteria Ã¢â¬â and show that you have done so. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Explain why you chose each criterion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Measuring each criterion? ($, market share/Sales, other goals) Ã¢â¬â Does it meet current or future business needs? Ã¢â¬â $ savings Ã¢â¬â Intangible benefits Ã¢â¬â Strategic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Threats Ã¢â¬ ¢ Opportunities Ã¢â¬â Competitive Ã¢â¬â Technological 7 Alternatives Recommendation (15 marks) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improvise use your imagination (just be logical). Each alternative should be a mostly complete Solution. Each alternative should be feasible. Assess each alternative based upon the criteria Ã¢â¬â show this analysis in your work. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Other pros cons (other than in the criteria) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alternatives donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be mutually exclusive. They can be a combination of the options identified. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why did you choose the recommended alternative/s? Ã¢â¬â Benefits Ã¢â¬â Explain how it achieves the objective/resolves the problem Ã¢â¬â Limitations / risks 8 Alternatives Recommendation (ContinuedÃ¢â¬ ¦) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make a recommendation (use a positive voice! ) Ã¢â¬â Do not just suggest something Ã¢â¬â Do not say it weakly or ambiguously Ã¢â¬ ¢ I believeÃ¢â¬ ¦ / In my opinionÃ¢â¬ ¦ / My thoughts areÃ¢â¬ ¦ Clearly recommend an action and explain Ã¢â¬ ¢ what it is and Ã¢â¬ ¢ why it fits the criteria. (if you have not already in the analysis). 9 Risk Management Plan (15 marks) Read Carefully the requirements of this section. Does it require an Implementation / Action plan as well? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Narrative exp lanation Ã¢â¬â Implementation Strategy/Approach (at a high level)? Ã¢â¬â Assumptions / Requirements Ã¢â¬ ¢ High level Risks, Ethical, Privacy issues? (Probability Impact) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mitigation Strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Plan Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Actual implementation steps and, within each step Ã¢â¬â Step Risk if any and mitigation plan if any Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Time Lines / Time Frame / Schedule Detail Costs Responsibilities Project Phases, if anyÃ¢â¬ ¦ short term, long term 10 Exam Review Session Ã¢â¬ ¢ Go over Business Case Ã¢â¬â TonyÃ¢â¬â¢s Auto Services Inc. from 2010 June exam 11 Some multiple choice tipsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ When answering a true and false question on the Exam simply break down complex sentences into smaller phrases. Each phrase has to be true or the entire sentence is false. Ã¢â¬ ¢ And, for multiple choice questions try to answer the question before looking at the answer choices. Remember that a perfect answer may not be given as a choice. Choose the best answer. Ã¢â¬â Source Certified Fraud Examiners (CFE) Exam Coach. 12 Strategic Alignment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Look for IT Strategy to support Business strategy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to differentiate from competition Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to reduce costs Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to bring business Ã¢â¬Å"Quick to marketÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to create new markets / products Ã¢â¬ ¢ IT to tie suppliers and customers 13 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ threat of new entrants bargaining power of customers bargaining power of suppliers threat of substitute products or services rivalry among existing competitors 14 Threat of New Entrants Mitigation Strategies: Ã¢â¬â High entry cost. Equipment, buildings, infrastructure, etc. Ã¢â¬â Mature Information Systems Ã¢â¬â Expertise Knowledge Ã¢â¬â Compete aggressively on Price Ã¢â¬â Lock in partners for a competitive edge Ã¢â¬â Brand recognition. Product Differentiation. Ã¢â¬â Focus on a Market niche Ã¢â¬â Operating Efficie ncies Pace of change Ã¢â¬â IT 16 MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s Law MetcalfeÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dropping price of computer Storage Dropping cost of processing (Ã¢â¬Å"mipsÃ¢â¬ ) Double the power every 18 months MetcalfeÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Ã¢â¬â The value of the network is the square of the sum of the nodes. Therefore stick with popular technology 17 Strategic Planning for IS Ã¢â¬ ¢ How is Planning done? Ã¢â¬â Top Down / Strategic Analysis Ã¢â¬â Bottom Up / Enterprise Analysis Ã¢â¬â Scenario Planning / Ã¢â¬Å"What ifÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ When is Planning done? Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Short Term Long Term Mergers Acquistions Economic downturns As part of a Budgeting Exercise After a major disaster. 18 Planning Issues Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Scalability Capacity planning Standardization vs. differentiation Legacy systems Ã¢â¬â Upgrade to new system or integrate with new technology but old core. 9 Total Cost of Ownership Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hardware Software Installation Training Support Ongoing Maintenance S/W Upgrades Infrastructure costs Data Backups, Business Continuity, Insurance Downtime Space, Energy, Security 20 Six IT Decisions Ã¢â¬â IT should not make 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How much to spend Allocation amongst Business Processes Firm-wide IT capabilities How much IT Security Privacy issues Blame over failure 21 IT Governance 22 10. 3 OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT 23 Achieving Success in IS Projects Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ clearly defined goals excellent communication management involvement definitive timelines Project management skills S. M. A. R. T Objectives. Why do they Fail? Ã¢â¬ ¢ lack of understanding of the desired results (imprecise targets) Ã¢â¬ ¢ poor estimating techniques for budgeting and scheduling Ã¢â¬ ¢ small, unadjusted schedule slippage, which cumulatively results in a major delivery delay Ã¢â¬ ¢ lack of project management skills or leadership Ã¢â¬ ¢ poorly trained analysts and programmers Ã¢â¬ ¢ conflicting goals and objectives among the project team members and users use of inappropriate software or hardware tools 25 Make Vs. Buy Ã¢â¬â Issues Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Cost Specialized functionality Ability to integrate with other existing Systems Ability to change the s/w Maintenance / Service Contract Update / Upgrade Speed of delivery KNOWLEDGE Ã¢â¬â Business vs. Industry vs. Functional Responsibility vs. Control vs. Risk Conversion 27 Parallel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Least risk of not meeting objectives Compare results to ensure correctness Gentle weaning off of the Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢ system Resilient to errors. Cons Ã¢â¬ ¢ Duplication of effort Ã¢â¬ ¢ Requires additional computing resources Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not possible in every situation 28 Pilot Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Allows for a small, low risk, controlled test bed Allows for a Go-NoGo decision w/o large investment Limits disruption harm Helps overcome user resistance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cons Ã¢â¬â Still Costly to run 2 systems Ã¢â¬â even if scaled down Ã¢â¬â Results may not extrapolate to Ã¢â¬Ëfull installÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Choice of Pilot site is critical 29 Phased Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Incremental approach with functional Phase-in Allows for Phased SystemsÃ¢â¬â¢ Development Allows time for orientation of the new technology Usually easier to manage the change Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cons Ã¢â¬â Still running 2 systems, Ã¢â¬â Longer disruption 30 Direct Cutover Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pros Ã¢â¬â Quick Ã¢â¬â Easy on resource utilization (only 1 system running) Ã¢â¬â Low cost Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cons Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Risky Requires full training preparation Requires Ã¢â¬Ëall handsÃ¢â¬â¢ on deck for Implementation Causes spike in Help desk calls Cr eates disruption, uncertainty, confusion Errors can cause Business Loss / interruption 31 Internet as a business tool Advantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wider Market exposure New ways to communicate (text, voice, video) Economical (ISP, programming, Shipping) 24x7x365 Anywhere, Anytime Off loads work to the customer Convenient for the customer if well designed. Quick Easy to update / Change Ã¢â¬â Real time Consistent Information / Prices 32 Internet as a business tool Disadvantages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not everybody has access high speed Impersonal not so interactive No touch feel of the goods Replacement for good business practice? Lack of consumer trust Legal challenges Socio-economic factors (availability of access) Privacy Challenges Groupware Collaborative s/w Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ MS NetMeeting / Communicator / Remote PC support Rolling out s/w updates and self healing s/w IBM Lotus Notes Domino EMC Documentum Virtual Meeting, avatars , e-Rooms (SDLC Project Mgmt) Private Cloud computing Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â VPN Storage space Applications Virtualization Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data Warehousing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data Mining Ã¢â¬ ¢ Business Intelligence s/w Strategic use of the Internet Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost Reduction Strategic Alliances Differentiation of products services Customer Loyalty (custom mass production) Value Chains To take advantage of Internet Technologies: Ã¢â¬â Keep focused on Business Strategy (Internet doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t compensate for bad or missing strategy) Ã¢â¬â Simplify Integrate your customer facing processes Ã¢â¬â to enable self service Ã¢â¬â Adhere to evolving IT standards Rationale for E-Business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diminished Information Asymmetry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Richness vs. Reach Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduced transaction costs Ways to Reduce Costs Customer Self serve Ã¢â¬â Eliminate middle person Ã¢â¬â Customer data entry Ã¢â¬â Self research and reduced consultation time Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduced Staffing levels Reduced Re-work Streamlined communication Faster 37 Securing online transactions The key issues in a transaction processing environment are Ã¢â¬ ¢ identification (Who are you? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ authentication (How can I be sure you are who you say you are? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ authorization (What authority do you have to make whatever transaction you seek? ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ privacy (How can we be sure our transaction is private? Ã¢â¬ ¢ nonrepudiation (How can we each be assured that the other will not later deny the transaction? ). Benefits / Limitations of Networking Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sharing Ã¢â¬â Printers, Drives, Scanners, etc Ã¢â¬ ¢ e-mail Ã¢ â¬ ¢ Centralized Administration Ã¢â¬â Distribution of S/W, Policies, Patches, A/V Ã¢â¬â Tracking, monitoring, Backing up data Ã¢â¬â Remote repair Support Ã¢â¬ ¢ Groupware Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limitations Ã¢â¬â Cost, Security, Vulnerability 39 Client Ã¢â¬â Server Computing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Centralized Computing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distributed Computing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Advantages Ã¢â¬â Data Security Centralization Ã¢â¬â Administration Ã¢â¬â Off Loads processing to Clients Disadvantages Ã¢â¬â extra complexity Ã¢â¬â Cost 40 Advantages of Outsourcing Ã¢â¬ ¢ cost savings through economies of scale and scope Ã¢â¬ ¢ infusion of cash through liquidation of computer assets Ã¢â¬ ¢ facilitate transition of data centre from cost centre to profit/loss centre Ã¢â¬ ¢ ability to rapidly introduce new technology and access IT talent Ã¢â¬ ¢ Better Scalability Ã¢â¬ ¢ focus on core competencies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Allows an objective look at process improvement by O/S 41 Limitations of Outsourcing loss of direct mana gerial control Ã¢â¬ ¢ difficulty in reversing decision Ã¢â¬ ¢ outsourcerÃ¢â¬â¢s viability (financial strength, responsiveness, service, and so on) Ã¢â¬ ¢ dilutes the strength of in-house staff Ã¢â¬â Unique, one of a kind application support? Ã¢â¬â Will key staff stay permanent or be rotated? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ vendor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know your business lack of flexibility untenable long-term contracts; fixed price versus service trade-off requires skills in partnership management strategic factors Privacy issues Monitoring / Managing Outsourcers 42 Risk Mitigation Strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Risk Assessment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Restrict Physical access Log all visitors Ã¢â¬â in/out Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cameras, Card Readers, Security Guards Alarms monitoring Intrusion Detection Systems (network) Firewalls Restricted Network access Policies, signoff, and Security Awareness training 43 Risk Mitigation Strategies ContÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authentication (know, have, and are) Ã¢â¬â Password Strategies, Single Sign-on, Pass Phrase Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authorization (Open / need to know) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Access invocation / revocation procedures Ã¢â¬â Hiring / Firing / Promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Segregation of Duties Ã¢â¬ ¢ Adequate Supervision Sign offs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitoring, Logging, Reporting, and Acting on Information. 44 Good Luck!! 45 How to cite Ms2 Course Review, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Table of Contents Forms of pollution Effects of pollution Environmental effects Regulation of pollution Refutation against pollution Conclusion Works Cited As population is increasing, pollution is becoming a massive global problem with far reaching consequences. The lifestyles of the modern people have changed as their actions contribute to wider magnitude in polluting the environment. Air, land, water, radioactive and terrestrial pollution has affected millions of people lives around the globe, even causing death and contributing to the effects of global warming.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pollution as a Big Problem That Faces the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is therefore evident that indeed pollution is a threat to the survival of people and if stringent measures are not improvised, it remains a bomb in waiting to explode. Pollution is human made, pausing devastating health issue s among the community at large, and its management cuts across all spectrums of societies including cultural, political, ethnic, and educational backgrounds Forms of pollution Various forms of pollution have contributed in the pollution of the environment. These include air, light, soil, water, soil/land, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, littering among many others. Air pollution is one of the leading forms of communication. This type of pollution results from emission or release of toxic chemical particles into the atmosphere (Bingheng, Haidong, Renjie, Songhui, and Chuanjie 1292). Some forms of air pollution include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxides produced by industries, chlorofluorocarbons, and combustion of motor vehicles fuels. Noise pollution consists of industrial noises, aircraft vehicle hooting and playing of loud music. This kind of pollution has effects o n the hiring capabilities of people as it may affect their hearing coordination. Radioac tive contamination emanates from activities such as atomic physics and the generation of nuclear power such as manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. Water pollution on the other hand results from discharge of ewer water or industrial wastes into water surfaces that are used for domestic use. Such water posses a health risks to those people depending on such water. Land or soil pollution is yet another form of pollution that continues to affect the livelihood of human beings. This form of pollution occurs when chemical leak or spill into the underground soil. These chemical include hydrocarbons, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides, and herbicides.Advertising Looking for research paper on ecology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such components have a health risk to the survival of human beings as they may hinder the growth of products hence denying people the opportunity to plant crops hence leading to st arvation. All these forms of pollution are aided by human beings action in their quest to earn a living. Even though, these pollutions have bad effects on the health of the population and the society, many people do little to reduce these effects. Effects of pollution Pollution has adverse effects on the health of the people. Adverse air pollution possesÃ¢â¬â¢ threats to many lives of living organism. For instance, pollution of the ozone layer may cause problems of respiratory diseases, throat inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, chest pain, and even congestion. Apart from posing health risks to human beings, pollution from air posses a threat to the survival of living organisms such as birds and other animals that, depend on fresh oxygen. Therefore, pollution of air, concerns the whole community and society and for the problem to be averted, their input and involvement is necessary. According to Krautz, water pollution causes an approximately 1,400 deaths in a day (144). Most o f those people who succumb to deaths as a result of water pollution drink contaminated water; untreated sewerage water from companies. Most of deaths are in the developing countries, as most of them have no working policies on industrial water pollution. Poverty has also contributed to pollutions of water, for instance, in India it is estimated that around 700 million people have no access to good/proper toilet leading to many children deaths in a year averaging to 1000. Statistics of deaths resulting from air and water pollution are alarming. In China, many people are dying as a result air pollution. An approximate of 527,700 fatalities is recorded resulting from air pollution due to increased industrialization. Noise pollution causes hearing loss, sleep disturbances, stress, and even contributed to high blood pressure among the people. These are problems that people continue to experience and unknowing they affect their lives and even shorten their life expectancy. Environmental e ffects Pollutions have effects on the environment. All these forms of pollutions take place in the environment and therefore, this leaves it exposed to a number of effects. Pollution of the environment causes emission of green gases that leads to global warming that eventually affects the ecosystems in a multiplicity of ways. Furthermore, smog in the air is able to reduce the amount of sunlight that is received by plants to carry out photosynthesis leading to crop failure resulting to an outbreak of hunger. Pollution can also make soil to become infertile and unsuitable to support plants. This may affect the living organs in soil and even the potential of the soil to support plants. Acid rain that is destructive is also caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that lower the PH of the soil leading to crop failure.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pollution as a Big Problem That Faces the World specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regulation of pollution The rate at which the environment is being polluted is alarming and as some of the measures to curb the ever-increasing rate, a number of policies and measures have been put in place. For instance, many nations in the world have enacted legislations and formulated policies geared at regulating various types of pollutions and mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. In most countries, the initiative to regulate pollution is under the government while others have given the mandate to other branches or non-governmental institutions to regulate pollution from industries and households. As a result, there has been locking of heads and disagreements on how these programs should be implemented with parties with interests objecting some reforms because of fear of running into losses (Harrison 6). It is therefore, apparent that, for the environment to be free from pollution all members of the society should be brought into the framework an d be responsible for their actions. The government, the education sector , the community members, all the ethnic groups should work in tandem at ensuring that they avoid polluting their environment. Governments have come up with different policies in their quest to eradicate pollution. For instance, most of them have intensified their campaigns and they now look beyond their national borders in pursuant of clean environment (Harrison 4). According to Harrison, many governments are seeking priority pollutants that tend to persist in environments for longer periods and use them instead (4). Many initiatives have also been initiated geared at protecting the aquatic environment from priority pollutants in order to protect marine waters (Harrison 4). Furthermore, several governments have also accepted approaches of prioritizing pollutant control. Some of these include replacement of chemicals and using more environmentally friendly chemical, reduction of use of priority pollutants, caref ul use of these chemicals in order to reduce accidents and or adventitious loss and waste. In UK for example, legislations have been enacted geared at regulating direct discharges to water and indirect discharges to sewer. These regulations are controlled via permitting systems (Harrison 4). The main legislations include the environmental protection act of 1990, the water resources act of 1991 and water industry act of 1991 for discharges to sewer (Harrison 6). These legislations serve to regulate, monitor, and control any illegal or not up to standard ways of discharge. According to Sell, agricultural losses caused by air pollution runs into hundreds of millions of dollars annually (9). For instance, much of the losses and damages that are witnessed in California are caused by pollutions in the air. Damage caused to crops ranges from visible to those that affect the growth and productivity of crops leading to destroying of life (Sell 10). Furthermore, air pollution affects the clim ate both regionally and global wise. For example, regionally, rainfall can be altered through the presence of air pollution (Sell 12). US for example, has over the past put in place legislations that would ensure that water pollution is contained. For instance, the refuse act of 1899 presented dumping of wastes into national navigation rivers. U.S army corps of engineers enforced the laws. The law was revived in 1972 by the then president Nixon. The law required an approximate 40,000 industrial plants discharging wastes into navigable rivers to specify the quantity and the type and to apply for a permit to discharge the wastes. This was one of the government initiate and will to control water pollution (Nelly 26). Environmental conservation can also be management by educating the public and key industries on the importance of ensuring that they keep the environment clean. Schools and learning institutions should be entrenched in the school curriculum in order to educate the students on how to keep the environment clean. Furthermore, before granting a license to investors interested in investing in an industrial plant, the investor should comply with the environmental regulations that requires proper disposal of their wastes.Advertising Looking for research paper on ecology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cutting of trees contributes to pollution of the environment. A good case was in China in 1998 when China witnessed flooding along the Yangtze River. As a measure to curb further flooding, the government banned tree cutting hence leading to prevention of flooding (Hill 4). Main causes of pollution According to Hill, the main cause of pollution is the growing human population, increased or growing rate of consumption and the large scale technological advancements when more industries are set up to engage in the production process (4). These factors, to larger extend have contributed to almost all forms of pollution that the world currently is experiencing. For instance, higher percentage of atmospheric green gas emissions, carbon dioxide emissions, water pollution are caused by human actions. Therefore, the world will continue to experience effects of pollution if urgent measures are not put in place. Refutation against pollution According to Lioy and Georgopoulos, pollution cannot b e eliminated 100% as there are a number of causes (1352). This observation is true and therefore it provides a loophole in the laxities of laws by some government in dealing with such cases. Some governments have blamed the continued pollution on cultural and ethnic and politics. Yes, these factors may prevent effective war against pollution. Politics is one of the factors that has been cited as able to bar proper implementation of legislations to eradicate pollutions. Nevertheless, pollution can be solved by legislations. For example, establishment of more smoking zones, putting smoke filters, can manage air pollution and chimneys in industrial buildings, control on the kind of fuels that are used in cars, power stations and aeroplanes. Water pollution can be avoided by the communities themselves reasoning logically and being wise enough not to pollute the water. Industries that lead in water pollution should be held responsible and monitored through legislations. Soil or land poll ution on the other hand can be managed through, anti liter campaigns aimed at educating people on responsible littering, dumping of organic materials in areas far from residential places and inorganic material such as metal and plastics, glass should be recycled or reserved a specific place of dumping. Conclusion Pollution is a big problem that faces the world. The world population is increasing at a very high rate, technology is growing fast, and the rate of consumption of products is increasing. Every sound-minded person is supposed to be cautious about what they engage in and work hard to contribute in keeping their environment clean. Even with government enacting legislations, the buck still stops with the people. We either destroy our ecosystem or try to make it a good place. Even though we cannot control pollution 100%, efforts geared at reducing the already polluted environment and that to ensure or curb further pollution should be exhibited. Therefore, the communities at lar ge have the responsibility of ensuring that pollution is avoided. Works Cited Bingheng, Chen, Haidong, Kan, Renjie, Chen, Songhui, Jiang, and Chuanjie, Hong. Ã¢â¬Å"Air Pollution and Health Studies in ChinaÃ¢â¬âPolicy Implications.Ã¢â¬ Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, 61.11 (2011): 1292-1299. Print. Harrison, Roy. Pollution: causes, effects and control. UK: Paston PrePress Ltd, 2001. Print. Hill, Marquita. Understanding Environmental pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2010. Print. Krautz, Joachim. Ã¢â¬Å"Poisoning the fount of life Ã¢â¬â fresh water pollution and its consequences.Ã¢â¬ Contemporary Review, 265.1544 (1994):144. Print. Lioy, Paul, and Georgopoulos, Panos. Ã¢â¬Å"New Jersey: A Case Study of the Reduction in Urban and Suburban Air Pollution from the 1950s to 2010.Ã¢â¬ Environmental Health Perspectives, 119.10 (2011): 1351-1355. Print. Sell, Nancy. Industrial Pollution Control: Issues and Techniques. John Wiley Sons, Inc: New York, 1992. Print. This research paper on Pollution as a Big Problem That Faces the World was written and submitted by user Brend0n to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Wells and Darwin essays Herbert George Wells was born in Bromley, Kent, a suburb of London, to a lower-middle-class family. He attended London University and the Royal College of Science where he studied zoology. One of his professors instilled in him a belief in social as well as biological evolution which Wells later cited as the important and influential aspect of his education. This is how it all began. Maybe without this professor Wells wouldnt be the famous author he is today. Most of Wells novels are science fiction and have a great deal of some kind of human society theme, or Darwinism in mind. It is a theme that is seen in his most famous science fiction writings. H.G. Wells seems to convey a sense of Darwinism and change in the future of society in his major works. Wells has been called the father and Shakespeare of science fiction. He is best known today for his great work in science fiction novels and short stories. He depicted stories of chemical warfare, world wars, alien visitors and even ato mic weapons in a time that most authors, or even people for that matter, were not thinking of the like. His stories opened a door for future science fiction writers who followed the trend that Wells wrote about. His most popular science fiction works include The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, and The Island of Doctor Moreau. His first novel, The Time Machine, was an immediate success. By the time the First World War had begun his style of writing and novels had made him one of the most controversial and best-selling authors in his time. In the story The Time Machine, Wells expresses his creativity with images of beauty, ugliness and great details. In this novel Wells explores what it would be like to travel in this magnificent and beautiful machine. The criterion of the prophecy in this case is influenced by the theory of natural selection. (Beresford, 424) He uses Darwins theory in the novel and relat...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
How to Format an AGLC Bibliography How to Format an AGLC Bibliography Knowing how to use AGLC referencing is vital if youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying law in Australia, or simply writing about legal issues Down Under, as it is the main regional guide for citing legal sources. So to help out, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve put together this guide on how to format an AGLC bibliography. What to Include in an AGLC Bibliography The fourth edition of AGLC uses a bibliography rather than a reference list. This means you should include every source you consulted while writing an essay, not just those cited in your document. In addition, you will need to sort sources by type using the following categories: A. Articles, Books and Reports B. Cases C. Legislation D. Treaties E. Other The Ã¢â¬Å"OtherÃ¢â¬â¢ category here includes anything that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit easily into the other categories, such as government documents, newspaper articles, transcripts, press releases, and websites. However, you can add to the categories above as required (e.g., if you cite several interview transcripts, you could have a separate section for them). Likewise, if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t cited any sources of a certain type in your work, you can leave that category out of the bibliography. How to Present an AGLC Bibliography An AGLC bibliography should follow certain rules. Make sure to: Provide full publication details for all sources. List sources under each heading alphabetically Invert the names of the first listed author when an author is named (i.e., give their surname first, followed by a comma and their first name). Use Ã¢â¬Å"et al.Ã¢â¬ after the first name when a source has four or more authors. Italicize titles of books, journals, cases, and legislation. Use Ã¢â¬Å"quote marksÃ¢â¬ for titles of journal articles and book chapters. As with any referencing system, clarity and consistency are vital in an AGLC bibliography, so make sure to get your work proofread, too. Example AGLC Bibliography In case any of the above isnÃ¢â¬â¢t clear, a bibliography made using AGLC rules should look something like the following: A. Articles, Books and Reports Mackie, Ken, Elizabeth Bennett Histead and John Page, Australian Land Law in Context (Oxford University Press, 2012) Rothstein, Mark A, Ã¢â¬Å"Epigenetic ExceptionalismÃ¢â¬ (2013) 41(3) The Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics 733 B. Cases Nydam v The Queen (1997) VR 430 Smith v Jones (1982) 126 CLR 503 C. Legislation Legal Profession Act 2004 (NSW) Navigation Act 2012 (Cth) s 14 D. Treaties International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, opened for signature 3 November 2001, UNTS 2400 (entered into force 31 March 2004) E. Other Hamer, David, Ã¢â¬Å"ARC rankings poor on lawÃ¢â¬ , The Australian (online, 25 June 2008) theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/opinion/arc-rankings-poor-on-law/story-e6frgcko-1111116734303 Wells, Kathryn, Australias Maritime History Under Sail (Web Page, 17 December 2009) australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/australias-maritime-history-under-sail
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Charles darwin - Essay Example It was then his interest in plants, animals, insects and geological samples developed when he was under the direction of his cousin William Darwin who was an entomologist; and by the mid of 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s Charles had so much excelled in the field that he made certain scientific inventions. He further got motivated by his professor of Botany, Stevens Henslow (Darwin, 42). After the mission of HMS Beagle to Patagonia which was carried under the guidance of his professor; he set his base to continue for his further operations in zoological and geological unearthing (Ruse, 4). By this time Darwin had developed relations with Sir Lyell Charles, which earned him the position of secretary of the Geological Society (Burkhardt,Ã Pearn& Evans, xiv). Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839. Ruse indicates that at this time Darwin was gaining experience from the Downe where he was spending his life at that time (5). He completely devoted his life to science although he suffered from ChagasÃ¢â¬â¢ s disease for a long period of time. It was then that he uncovered the issue of the origin of species and what came to be known as natural selection in the Darwinian Theory. By the end of 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s Darwin had made a lot of discoveries and finally he was able to compile all his collections in to a book named as The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s illness continued and the pro-longed illness cost his life and je died leaving 8 kids behind and numerous discoveries and books. He is greatly remembered for his contribution in evolution theories. He indeed contributed greatly in the field of Science. DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas Darwin is considered as the pioneer of a number of ideologies and theories (Aydon, 22). He covered the issues regarding human kind to racism. Darwin argues that the human beings throughout the years have struggled for their survival. He also proposed the relation between the human body and the mind. He declares that the mind is an ext remely complex body organ and has a direct impact and effect on the various human activities. In fact the mind has a direct relation on the evolution of humankind. Evolution of humankind results in racism. Besides this cultural evolution also takes place as a result of the mind activities. Darwin is also remembered for his thoughts on Protestantism and the church. Human Evolution and Philosophy Since the publishing of the work of The Origin of SpeciesÃ in 1859 by Darwin, a lot of questions have been asked regarding this theory. The questions have been asked in order to further understand human behavior and the different factors that directly affect the human behavior. Philosophy helps in an understanding of the existence of human beings and the reality behind discovery of varying aspects. It is through philosophy that the humans have been able to comprehend the nature of truth and knowledge on the evolution of human beings. In relation to human evolution, philosophy aids in bringi ng the need to inquire and analyse the speculations, interpretations, analysis and criticism of human evolution. It also helps to establish the nature of relationship between people and their society. Philosophy helps to clarify the concept of evolution. Ruse has presented that in his work Darwin wrote that people are always under a constant struggle for survival, they